“No soil, no food. The soil quality defines your food essence.”

WORLD SOIL DAY

“No soil, no food. The soil quality defines your food essence.”

Soil is a major element of the natural environment. Soil, combined with water, consummates the essential requisites of humans like food, water, shelter, and attire. Soil is the cornerstone of agriculture, animal husbandry, and forest business. The rocks found on the surface are changed by weathering and erosion actions. The shell powder which is found on the surface formed by the chemical, physical and interactions of weathering and the vicissitude in the weathering layer is called soil.

“We can’t even imagine how the world will be without soil and simultaneously without food grown.”

Soil erosion is the removal of the most fertile top layer of soil through water, wind, and tillage. It is making our soil disappear. Soil erosion affects soil health and productivity which decreases the quantity and quality of the food we eat. It can span up to a 50% loss in crop yields. Eroded soils don’t easily retain water, this can trigger flooding and landslides.

But it gets worse. Soil particles displaced by wind and water can lead to soil and water pollution. Soil erosion decreases the soil’s potential to mitigate and adapt to climate change and causes loss of soil biodiversity. The soil erosion is a burning issue across the globe at the rate of an area equivalent to a soccer ground in every 5-seconds eroded. This distressful fact reiterates the need to raise awareness through World Soil Day of this burgeoning intricacy, as the Earth’s population proceeds to expand.

It can take up the time of producing 1000 years to produce just 2-3 cm of soil. Unsustainable human activities are accelerating soil erosion. Farmers can adopt sustainable soil management practices. This year, by addressing the increasing challenges of soil management, the FAO campaign “Stop soil erosion, Save our future” aims to raise awareness of the importance of sustaining healthy ecosystems and human well-being. By encouraging people around the world to engage in proactively improving soil health, the campaign also aims to raise the profile of healthy soil. If we do not act soon, erosion will; the fertility of the soil will continue to be adversely affected at an alarming rate, threatening global food supplies and food safety.

Types of soil:

Soil classification is a contentious subject, but soils have indeed been classified on many terrains. Many soil explorers have classified the soils based on their color such as black soil, red soils, yellow soils, while some have classified sandy, clay, etc. based on the texture of their particles. Mainly, the soil is classified based on-

  • Depending on the texture of the clay particles – the mixture of clay particles is called texture. These soil particles are fine and coarse. On this basis, soils are divided into four types.

 

  • Sand – Sand particles are 1 mm to 0.05 mm in diameter, the soil in which the amount of such particles is 80% or more and the percentage of dead clay is 20% or less is called sand.

 

  • Sandy Loam – It has a higher percentage of clay. This is called loamy loam soil. It contains 20 to 50 % sand particles and 50 to 80 % of clay particles are found.

 

 

 

  • Loam– A mixture of clay, silt and sand particles is found in this type of soils. The percentage of clay in loam is 20 percent or less silt (the diameter of silt is .05 to .005 millimeters) and the percentage of sand is 20 to 40. Soils with high silt content are called silt loam and which have a high amount of clay particles, it is called clay loam.

 

  • Clay – Soils that have a lot of clay or clay particles are called clay soil. The texture of dead particles is also less in diameter by 0.005 mm. These are the most exquisite particles. Excess of dead and clay is found in such soils and only small amounts of other particles (silt and sand particles) only in small amounts. Water remains safe for many days in clay or dead soil.

Based on Colors:

Soil scientists have also classified soils based on their colors. In soil, this color is dark black or brown depending on the excess and deficiency of the number of mixed minerals or bacteria in its elemental rocks. Depending on the color, the soil is classified as follows-

Black soil (Chernozems)

Excess of bacterial elements are found in this type of soil. The color of these soils is light or brownish-black depending on the excess or deficiency of bacterial elements. The color of these soils is also found to be black due to insufficient drainage in the wetlands. Soils formed by lava flows are also black, such as the rag soils of India. These soils are the most fertile.

Black soil (Chernozems)

Excess of bacterial elements are found in this type of soil. The color of these soils is light or brownish-black depending on the excess or deficiency of bacterial elements. The color of these soils is also found to be black due to insufficient drainage in the wetlands. Soils formed by lava flows are also black, such as the rag soils of India. These soils are the most fertile.

  • Yellow soils– These types of soils become yellow due to the mixing of hydrated iron. These soils are less fertile.
  • White Soils– Soils in which calcium carbonate or salts are more abundant, those soils are white. These soils are less fertile
  • Brown Soils – Soils that are found lacking in oxygen, organic matter and iron, are called brown soils. These soils are less fertile.
  • Ash-colored soils Podzols or Ashy Soils– According to soil scientists some soils have a similar color to ash which develops on top of more fertile and darker soils. These are called podzol soils.

Team GJR

We at GJR inspire and educate our students by conducting sapling days to realize them the importance of soil and trees from the commencement. Teachers also conduct various in house activities that prevail on the protection of the mother earth and protection of soil.

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